In theoretical physics, a Penrose diagram (named for mathematical physicist Roger Penrose) is a two-dimensional diagram that captures the causal relations between different points in spacetime. It is an extension of a Minkowski diagram where the vertical dimension represents time, and the horizontal dimension represents space, and slanted lines at an angle of 45° correspond to light rays. The biggest difference is that locally, the metric on a Penrose diagram is conformally equivalent to the actual metric in spacetime. The conformal factor is chosen such that the entire infinite spacetime is transformed into a Penrose diagram of finite size. For spherically symmetric spacetimes, every point in the diagram corresponds to a 2-sphere.